In 1806 the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian authority, but it was not until the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) that Russian power over Dagestan was confirmed, and that Qajar Iran officially ceded the territory to Russia.In 1813, following Russia's victory in the war, Iran was forced to cede southern Dagestan with its principal city of Derbent, alongside other vast territories in the Caucasus to Russia, conform the Treaty of Gulistan.
With a population of 2,910,249, Dagestan is very ethnically diverse and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority.
Largest among these ethnicities are the Avar, Dargin, Kumyk, Lezgian, Laks, Azerbaijani, Tabasaran and Chechen.
Between 1730 and the early course of the 1740s, following his brother's murder in Dagestan, the new Iranian ruler and military genius Nader Shah led a lengthy campaign in swaths of Dagestan in order to fully conquer the region, which was met with considerable success, although he was eventually inflicted several decisive defeats by various of the ethnic groups of Dagestan, forcing him to retreat with his army.
From 1747 onwards, the Iranian-ruled part of Dagestan was administered through the Derbent Khanate, with its centre at Derbent.
), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea coast.
Most of the Republic is mountainous, with the Greater Caucasus Mountains covering the south.
The highest point is the Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu peak at 4,470 meters (14,670 ft) on the border with Azerbaijan.
The southernmost point of Russia is located about seven kilometers southwest of the peak.
Other important mountains are Diklosmta (4,285 m (14,058 ft)), Gora Addala Shukgelmezr (4,152 m (13,622 ft)) and Gora Dyultydag (4,127 m (13,540 ft)).
Dağ means 'mountain' in Turkish and -stan is a Persian suffix meaning 'land'.